HEBR 221: Readings in OT Narrative - Exodus, Fall 2001.  SYLLABUS.         RJDKnauth
Class time:  T/Th 1:00-2:50 pm, D-302.  Office hours MWF 2:30-4:00 pm, D-320.
 Telephone: (570) 321-4298 (xGAYT); home: (570) 326-3822 (h).  Email: knauth@lycoming.edu

A critical reading of the Hebrew text of selected narrative portions of the Old Testament with special attention being given to exegetical questions.  This semester, in conjunction with the REL337 seminar, we will be focusing on the book of Exodus.  The purpose of this course will be to develop and practice your ability to read and understand biblical Hebrew narrative, as found in the book of Exodus.  We will continue to develop a basic working vocabulary with a goal of mastering words occurring 50 times or more in the Hebrew Bible (section 4 in Mitchel).  We will also discuss unusual points of grammar that come up in the readings, and become familiar with the standard research tools and references for biblical Hebrew language and grammar.  Finally, as time permits, we will discuss larger issues of theology, historical background and scholarly criticism in relation to the book of Exodus with a standard exegetical approach.  Exodus is an extremely rich book, with a wide variety of types of text and themes which were pivotal for the national identity of Israel.  Starting with the book of Exodus, we can come to a much deeper understanding of the rest of the Old Testament.  Any student with a minimum of 1 yr of Biblical Hebrew may register for this course (prerequisite HEBR 102 or equivalent).

This semester, Hebr 221 will be offered in conjunction with REL 337W: Biblical Topics - Exodus (meeting MWF 3:00-4:50 in D-302).  This "Exegesis" seminar will be an in-depth study of the book of Exodus along with other related Biblical and ancient Near Eastern texts, employing a variety of academic methodologies which can then be applied to various other biblical texts.  Hebr 221 students are welcome to attend and participate in sessions for REL 337W - Exodus, in which larger issues of exegesis, historical background, themes and methodology will be discussed during the first hour directly following the Hebrew reading session. 

Textbooks:  Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS
                     Nahum Sarna, Exodus (JPS Torah Commentary)
                   Mitchel, Vocabulary for Biblical Hebrew (you may also find Vocabulary Cards helpful)

Indispensable References (available in library, but worth purchasing):
                    Kittel, Biblical Hebrew (available with audio cassette and answer key)
                    Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, Gesenius, Kautzsch and Cowley (GKC)
       (other Hebrew grammars you may consult in my office: Jouon, Waltke, Williamson, Lambdin)
                    Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew Lexicon (BDB)
                    A Readerís Hebrew-English Lexicon..., Armstrong, Busby and Carr (ABC)
                    NIV Interlinear Old Testament or Hendricksonís Interlinear Bible
                    Englishmanís Hebrew Concordance
                    New American Standard Exhaustive Concordance (w/ "Strong" numbers)   
                    The Bible (any English version, complete)

Other useful references (available in the library):
                    The Book of Exodus , Brevard Childs (especially his "Textual and Philological Notes")
                    Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture, Brevard Childs
                    Understanding the Old Testament, Bernhard Anderson
                    Who Wrote the Bible?, Richard Friedman (on reserve)

                    Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible, Emanuel Tov (in my office)
                    The Anchor Bible Dictionary
                    Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible
            These will point the reader to further useful bibliography.

  Course Requirements:

1)       Attendance and Participation, readings having been prepared: 10% of final grade.
Each set of 3 absences and/or lack of preparedness lowers your final grade by 1%. 

2)   Reading logs should be prepared for the readings for each session.  Logs will be spot-checked, discussed in class, and collected en mass at the conclusion of the course: 10% of final grade.  They will be evaluated on a "good faith effort" basis.

3)       Weekly Vocabulary Quizzes (usually at the beginning of class on Tuesdays).
Of 15 quizzes, the lowest 3 scores will be dropped from the average): 10% of final grade.

4)      Four Short Translation Tests (Thursdays): worth 5% each for a total 20% of final grade.

5)   Five Short Research Assignments (due Thursdays in class): 10% of final grade.

6)   Short Research Project incorporating substantive linguistic issues: 10% of final grade. 

7)       Final Exam (Translation): Take-home portion = 15%; In-class portion=15% (Total 30%).

Schedule of Classes:            

Week 1:  Introduction, Birth of Moses 
  Prepare Exod 1:1-2:10.  Read Sarna pp. 3-10, Childs I-II (pp. 1, 5-7).  
  Review Vocabulary in Mitchel Section 1(A-D).  Review major points of grammar for verbs.
  Issues to think about: Oppression, Remembering, Genesis Links, Abandonment, ANE Parallels.  
T  (Aug. 28)- Introduction. Exodus as THE formative Israelite experience.  Begin to read Exod 1.
    Review "Reading Log;" introduce Grammars (GKC, Waltke, Williamson); discuss "Word Study."
Th (Aug. 30)- Prepare Exod 1:1-2:10 (w/ log), continue reading through birth story of Moses.
    Research Assignment 1:  Do a "word-study" on zakar.

Week 2:  The Call of Moses  
  Read Exod 2:11-7:7, Sarna pp. 11-37, Childs III-VI (pp. 28, 49-51, 92-3, 110-111). 
  Review Vocabulary 2A-E (>200).  Review major points of grammar.
  Issues:  Characterization of Moses, Midianite Hypothesis, Sources (duplicate calls?).
T  (Sept. 4)- Prepare Exod 2:11-4:31Quiz1 on Vocab (>500): Mitchel Section 1A-D. 
Th (Sept. 6)- Prepare Exod 5:1-7:7.
    Research Asst 2:  List 6 ways in which Moses' character is developed in Exod 1-7.
          Note significant parallels or other textual/linguistic clues to their significance (e.g. in 2:11-14).

Week 3:  Miraculous Plagues in Egypt: Natural Phenomena? Religious Polemic? Bedtime Stories?  
  Read Exod 7:8-11:10, Sarna pp. 37-53, Childs VII (pp. 128-30).  
  Review Vocabulary 3A-G (>100).  Review Exodus 1-7.
  Issues: Autonomous Choice; Corporate Responsibility.  Science vs. Theology.
T  (Sept. 11)- Prepare Exod 7:8-13, split up rest of plagues (3 each).  Quiz2 on Vocab 2A-E. 
            Blood, Frogs and Gnats:      _______________ (Exod 7:14-8:15[E=19])
            Flies, Livestock and Boils:    _______________ (Exod 8:17[E=20]-9:12)
            Hail, Locusts and Darkness: _______________ (Exod 9:13-10:29)
Th (Sept. 13)- Prepare Exod 11:1-10.  Translation Test 1 on Exod. 1-11.

Week 4:  The Passover and Exodus  
  Read Exod 12:1-15:21, Sarna pp. 53-83, Childs VIII-X (pp. 182-4, 217-18, 242-3).  
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4A.
  Issues: Passover, consecration of first born. ANE imagery: battling Sea Dragons. Exodus theme.
T  (Sept. 18)- Prepare Exod 12:1-13:22 (Passover). Quiz3 on Vocab 3A-G.
Th (Sept. 20)- Prepare Exod 14:1-15:21 (Reed Sea crossing - Sources).  
    Research Asst 3: Separate the Reed Sea crossing accounts into sources J/P (Friedman).
                      Look for corresponding linguistic or stylistic features distinctive to each.

Week 5:  Wilderness Wanderings  
  Read Exod 15:22-18:27, Sarna pp. 83-102, Childs XI-XV (pp. 266, 273-4, 305, 310-2, 320-1).
  Compare Numbers 10:29-14:45, Numbers 16-17, 20, 25. 
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4B.
  Issues: Function of complaining stories, links with Numbers. Midianite Hypothesis.
            Sources P vs. E - Jethro/Reuel, Sinai/Horeb.  Moses, Aaron: rival priestly houses?
T  (Sept. 25)- Prepare Exod 15:22-17:16 (Complaining).  Quiz4 on Vocab 4A.
Th (Sept. 27)- Prepare Exod 18:1-27 (Jethro).   
     Discuss issues of textual criticism, introduce BHS apparatus.  In-class Exercise.

Week 6:  Review and Test  
  Review Readings: Exod 12-18, Sarna 53-102 plus Excurses. No new prep.
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4C. 
T  (Oct. 2)-  Catch up on readings. Review for Test (come with questions!).  Quiz5 on Vocab 4B.  
Th (Oct. 4)-  Translation Test 2 on Exod 12-18.

Week 7:  Sinai Theophany and Revelation 
  Read Exod 19:1-25, 20:15-18[E=18-21], 24:1-18; Sarna pp. 102-107, 115, 150-155.
  See Childs XVI, XIX (pp. 342-4, 498-9). Compare Exod 33:18-34:7, Deut 5:4-5, 22-31.
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4D.
  Issues: Sacred mountain as "Axis Mundi" (connecting place of heaven/earth).  
            Storm/Volcano imagery.  Who/what is God?  Seeing God. 
T  (Oct. 9)-  Prepare Exod 19:1-25, 20:15-18[E=18-21], 24:1-18Quiz6 on Vocab 4C.  
Th (Oct. 11)- Discuss Research Asst. 4.
    Research Asst 4:  Note the apparent contradictions in the theophany texts.
                        Are there any linguistic clues that would suggest distinct sources here?

Week 8:  Ten Commandments  
  Read Exod 20:1-14[E=17], Sarna pp. 107-115, Childs XVII (pp. 387-8).
  Compare Deut 5:1-22, Lev 19, Exod 34:10-28.  
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4E.
  Issues:  What is the Law? Types and origins. Reflections on the nature of God.
T  (Oct. 16)-  Prepare Exod 20:1-14[E=17]Quiz7 on 4D.  
Th (Oct. 18)- The "Ten Words" - traditional unit, variant versions. What do they tell us?
    Research Asst 5: Using the accent marks and linguistic parallels as your guide,
                        Separate out and analyze the "Ten Commandments" as poetic verse.

Week 9:  Covenant Code  
  Read Exod 20:19[E=22]-23:33, Sarna pp. 115-150, Childs XVIII (pp. 446-51).  
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4F.
  Issues: Historical precedents: Hammurabi, etc.; continuity/distinctiveness.  Hunger for Justice.
T  (Oct. 23)-  Prepare Exod 20:19[E=22]-22:30[E=31]Quiz8 on 4E.  
Th (Oct. 25)- Prepare Exod 23:1-33.  Translation Test 3 on Exod 19-24.

Week 10:  The Tabernacle  
  Read Exod 25:1-31:18, Sarna pp. 155-202, Childs XX (pp. 523-9).  
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4G.
  Issues: Tabernacle as Symbol of a Holy God, Precursor of the Jerusalem Temple.
T  (Oct. 30)-  Prepare Exod 25:1-22, 26:1-37.  Quiz9 on Vocab 4F.
Th (Nov. 1)-  Prepare Exod 27:1-21, 30:30-31:18.
    Begin work on Research Project.  Find a Topic (this will be the hardest part)!

Week 11:  The Golden Calf  
  Read Exod 32:1-33:23, Sarna pp. 202-215, Childs XXI-XXII (pp. 555-7, 583-4). 
  Compare Num 8:13-19, 1Kings 12, 1Kings 19.  
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4H.
  Issues: Idolatry or alternative throne iconography? Dedication of Levites. Presence of God.
T  (Nov.  6)- Prepare Exod 32:1-35Quiz10 on 4G.
Th (Nov. 8)-  Prepare Exod 33:1-23, 34:5-9.
    Research Project Proposal Due!

Week 12:  Covenant Renewal, Blessing and Dedication  
  Read Exod 34:1-40:38, Sarna pp. 215-237, Childs XXIII-XXIV (pp. 603-604).  
  Learn Mitchel Vocabulary 4I.
New tablets of covenant, covenant renewal.  Blessing, Dedication. 
T  (Nov. 13)- Prepare Exod 34:1-35, 35:1-36:7, 40:34-38Quiz11 on Vocab 4H.  
Th (Nov. 15)- Translation Test 4 on Exod. 25-27, 31-35.  Library Research Session.

Week 13: Vocabulary Drill, Thanksgiving Break .  No Prep.  
   Review Vocabulary 4A-I;  Learn Vocabulary 4J.  
T  (Nov. 20)- Vocabulary Drill on 4A-I.  Quiz12 on 4I.   
Th (Nov. 22)- *Thanksgiving, No Class.*  Review Vocabulary!!!!!

Week 14: Special Problems (i.e. for Research Papers).  No prep.  
    Review Vocabulary 4A-J for special quiz; Learn Vocabulary 4K.
T  (Nov. 27) - Bring research problems or read excerpts from Exod 36-40 cold. Quiz13 on 4J.
Th (Nov. 29) - Bring research problems or read from Exod 36-40 cold. Quiz14 on 4A-I cum.
    Research Projects Due Friday at Midnight!

Week 15:  Major Themes, Review for Exam.  
   Review Mitchel Section 4 Vocabulary (4A-K).
T  (Dec.  4)- Discuss major themes of book, review for exam. Quiz15 on 4K.
Th (Dec.  6)- **Read random passages from Exodus.  Hand out Take-home exam.**

**"Reading Logs" should be prepared for each class session according to instructions in the syllabus saying "Prepare Exod __:__" (generally 3-4 pgs in BHS per session).  In preparing the text, you may use any tools you like, including Grammars, Lexicons/Dictionaries, Childs' commentary, English versions, etc.  When reading in class, plan to use only the plain Hebrew text from BHS, plus ABC, plus your reading log.  Your reading log should include any points of grammar (e.g. verb analysis/parsing, suffixes, etc.) that were not immediately obvious to you, and a basic English definition for any Hebrew word that you looked up in the lexicon.  Be prepared to discuss these in class.  You need not include words already in ABC unless you felt it necessary to look them up in BDB as well in order to get a better sense of their meaning.  You may also note any grammatical constructions which you find to be unusual or especially interesting.  The majority of most class sessions will be spent reading the biblical text with the aid of these reading logs, and discussing the points of grammar that you found to be difficult and have therefore noted in your logs.  Please note that the ideal reading log would (eventually) be largely empty because your familiarity with the vocabulary (not including that in ABC) and grammar would allow you to read the text competently with minimal outside aids.  In this case your log would consist only of those forms which are especially unusual or interesting, as you will find noted in GKC and other reference Grammars.  Please do not write reams and reams.  Less is better.  Do NOT write out your English translation of the verse.  The Logs will be collected en mass at the end of the semester and will be counted for 10% of your final grade on a "good faith effort" basis.

**Research Assignments should not exceed 2 pages.  They will be due Thursdays in class and will be discussed at that time.

**Research Projects will be due on Friday at midnight in the mailbox outside the instructor's office door (D-320), and should not exceed 6 pages.  Since any papers delivered after 5:00 pm will not be received until the following Monday morning, any papers found in the box on the Monday morning will be considered to be on time.  Please do not ask for last-minute short extensions because of printing problems and the like.  Just get your papers in the box by first thing Monday morning.  Any papers received after that, unless there is a serious excuse such as a major illness (with a note from the doctor), family emergency (with a note from parents), or other serious problem, will be penalized at the discretion of the instructor.

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